This page shows academic publications from the Circular X project. While the project is in its early stages, relevant articles published already before the official project start are also added below.

Articles published during project Circular X:


Bocken, N. M. P., Stahel, W., Dobrauz, G., Koumbarakis, A., Obst, M., Matzdorf, P. (2021) Circularity as the new normal. Future fitting Swiss business strategies. WWF Switzerland and PWC.

Ritala, P., Albareda, L., & Bocken, N. (2021) Value creation and appropriation in economic, social, and environmental domains: Recognizing and resolving the institutionalized asymmetries. Journal of Cleaner Production, 290, 125796.

Bocken, N., Weissbrod, I., & Antikainen, M. (2021) Business experimentation for sustainability: emerging perspectives. Journal of Cleaner Production, 281, 124904124904. Open access available here.

Bocken, N., Weissbrod, I., & Antikainen, M. (2020, June). The Emerging Research Field of Experimentation for Circular Business Model Innovation. In 5th international online conference on New Business Models: Sustainable. Circular. Inclusive. (pp. 106-110).

Henry, M., Schraven, D., Bocken, N., Frenken, K., Hekkert, M., & Kirchherr, J. (2021) The battle of the buzzwords: A comparative review of the circular economy and the sharing economy concepts. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 38, 1-21.


Articles relevant to the project, but published before the project start:

Baldassarre, B., Konietzko, J.,Brown, P.,Calabretta, G., Bocken, N., Karpen, I., Hultink, E.J. (2020) Addressing the design-implementation gap of Sustainable Business Models by prototyping: A tool for planning and executing small-scale pilots. Journal of Cleaner Production, 255, 120295
Open access free text available here.

Bocken, N.M.P., de Pauw, I., van der Grinten, B., Bakker, C. (2016) Product design and business model strategies for a circular economy. Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering, 32 (1), 67-81. (open access)

Bocken, N.M.P., Boons, F., Baldassarre, C. (2019) Sustainable business model experimentation by understanding ecologies of business models. Journal of Cleaner Production, 208C, 1498-1512.
Open access free text available here.

Bocken, N., Geradts, T. (2020) Barriers and Drivers to Sustainable Business Model Innovation: Organization Design and Dynamic Capabilities. Long Range Planning (in press) (open access)

Bocken, N., Miller, K., Weissbrod, I., Holgado, M., & Evans, S. (2017) Business Model Experimentation for Circularity: Driving sustainability in a large international clothing retailer. Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment (EPEE), 2017(1), ), 85-122. (open access)

Bocken, N., Mugge, R., Bom, C., Lemstra, H. (2018) Pay-per-use business models as a driver for sustainable consumption: evidence from the case of HOMIE. Journal of Cleaner Production. 198, 498-510.
Open access free text available here.

Bocken, N. M., Schuit, C. S., & Kraaijenhagen, C. (2018) Experimenting with a circular business model: Lessons from eight cases. Environmental innovation and societal transitions, 28, 79-95.
Open access free text available here.

Bocken, N., Short, S., Rana, P., Evans, S. (2014) A literature and practice review to develop Sustainable Business Model Archetypes. Journal of Cleaner Production, 65, 42–56 (open access).

Bocken, N., & Snihur, Y. (2019) Lean Startup and the Business Model: Experimenting for Novelty and Impact. Long Range Planning, 101953 (open access)

Bocken, N., Strupeit, L., Whalen, K., Nußholz, J. (2019) A Review and Evaluation of Circular Business Model Innovation Tools. Sustainability, 11(8), 2210. (open access)

Konietzko, J., Bocken, N., Hultink, E.J. (2020) A tool to analyze, ideate and develop circular innovation ecosystems. Sustainability, 12, 417. (open access)

Schuit, C.S.C, Kraaijenhagen, C., Bocken, N.M.P. (2017) Kickstarting circular business experimentation - From product ownership to customer experience. Innoboost & TU Delft. (open access)

Weissbrod, I., & Bocken, N. M.P. (2017) Developing sustainable business experimentation capability–A case study. Journal of Cleaner Production, 142, 2663-2676. (open access)